"El mono Hernández" Cork Forest Flora and Fauna Sanctuary
Los Katíos National Park
For a length of almost 48 km, the Los Katíos National Park shares its boundary with the Darien National Park, a world heritage site in Panama and a region of remarkable biodiversity.
Naturally, this creates an environment rich in flora and fauna, home to a range of species, most of which are endemic to this part of South America. The endemic birds of the region - rufous-cheeked hummingbird and violet-capped hummingbird, are just two of the over 450 species of birds that have been recorded in the park. Along with 17 species of egrets, curassows, guans, mountain quail, moorhens, gulls, pelicans, doves, macaws, parakeets, owls, hummingbirds, toucans, woodpeckers, ant tanagers, and troopials; the park is also home to the magnificent harpy eagle, known as the most powerful predatory bird in the neotropics.
Additionally one can find animals such as Baird’s tapir, collared peccary, white-lipped peccary; monkeys such as Geoffroy´s tamarin, white-throated capuchin, spider monkey, lemurine owl monkey, red howler monkey, and mantled howler monkey.
The jaguar is the largest predator of the neotropics and the other predators would include fox, neotropics otter, bush dog, puma and spectacled bear.
Of the some 550 species that can be found in this park, there are approximately 60 species of fish, of which some are endemic, while the others are shared with Central America. The Magdalena stingray, Magdalena smallmouth, “bearded fish”, snake-fish, sawfish, and Lima shovel-nosed catfish are just some of these fishes.
The brown caiman, “needle-nose” caiman or American crocodile, snapping turtle, yellow-footed tortoise, scorpion mud turtle and snakes like ancehead, bushmaster and boa constrictor are just some of the reptiles to be found at this park.
El Tuparro National Park
The wildlife in the park is varied having 74 mammalian species, 112 bird species, 17 reptiles and more than 26 species of fish. Typical of South American forests the park has many primate species including the collared or widow titi, the brown capuchin, the red howler monkey, the owl monkey, and the white-faced monkey. The large mammals include jaguar, puma and ocelot. The other mammals found in the park are Llanos long-nosed armadillo, southern tamandua, eastern cotton-tail rabbit, squirrel, yellow-crowned brush-tailed rat, Venezuelan white-tailed deer, red brocket, grey brocket, anteater, capybara, tapir, paca, and river dolphin.
The bird life in the park is diverse as well and the park is a habitat for more than 112 bird species. Some of the birds in the park are paujil, guan, curassow, buff-necked ibis, jabiru, scarlet ibis, great potoo, the Guianan cock-of-the-rock, Orinoco piculet woodpecker, roseate spoonbill, maguari stork, king vulture, and sunbittern.
The park has a lot of water resources and is home to several species of fish, amphibians and water reptiles. Some of the reptiles are yellow-headed sideneck turtle, Orinoco crocodile, alligator. The fish in the rivers are also fascinating and include the peculiar Osteoglossum ferreyrae or ferreira, a bony-tongued fish or living fossil which migrated from the Amazon region to the Orinoco along the Casiquiare tributary. The common fish found include giant Amazon catfish, vampire fish, blue-gold snapper, spiny catfish, and peacock bass.
Puracé National Natural Park
Puracé National Park is home to over 160 species of birds, of which hummingbirds, ducks, blue jays, birds of prey are the most dominating. Several mammals are found in the park: spectacled bear, mountain tapir, cougar, pudú as well as the Andean condor that the San Diego Zoo helped to reintroduce in the 1990s. The lower elevation forests are home to four primates: woolly monkey, howler monkey, gray-bellied night monkey, tufted capuchin.
Otún Quimbaya National Park
The Otún Quimbaya National Park is home to varied wildlife. It has several endemic and endangered species. Some of the mammals found in the area are mountain tapirs (Tapirus pinchaque), spectacled bears (Tremarchus ornatus), pacaranas (Dinomys branickii), and lemurine owl monkeys (Aotus lemurinus).
The area is a popular birding destination and is home to a large number of bird species. The common birds that can be sighted in the area are Cauca guan (Penelope perspicax), moustached antpitta (Grallaria alleni), crested eagle (Oroaetus isidori), wood-quail (Odontophoru hyperythrus), mountain parakeet (Leptosittaca branickii), black turkey hen (Aburria aburri), and multicolored tanager (Chlorochrysa nitidissima).
Amacayacu National Natural Park
The Amacayacu Park is extremely high in biodiversity, right from the world’s largest to the smallest animals are found in this Amazonian haven. It is home to the world’s smallest primate, the Lion Marmoset, the world’s largest snake the Anaconda and the ‘charapa’, the largest freshwater turtle in the world. The park has more than 15 aquatic and tertiary mammal species, 12 primate species and more than 468 bird species.
The mammals include aquatic mammals like the Amazon river manatee, Amazon river dolphin and the tucuxi or river dolphin. A lot of reptiles are found in this park including the black caiman, cuiveirs and Schneiders caimans and the anaconda. Birds of all kinds inhabit this region, right from aquatic birds to native birds, some of these birds are curassow, mountain paujil, anhigas, egrets, herons and the endemic macaws, brightly colored and numbering to more than 33 species.
The river plays an important role in the riverside communities and there are several fish species found in the river. In fact fish forms more than 90% of animal protein for the indigenous people in this region.
Alto Fragua Indiwasi National Park
The Alto Fragua Indiwasi National Park was created to preserve the high biodiversity of the region. It is a refuge for several endangered mammal species like the woolly monkey ( Lagotrix lagotricha lugens ), flying monkey (Pithecia monachus milleri ) aardvark palm ( Myrmecophaga tridactyla ), tigre chicken (Leopards tigrinus), ocelot canaguaro or hound (Leopards pardalis), jaguar (Pantera onca), puma (Puma concolor ), mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) and the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornaments ).
The region is also inhabited by rare and endangered birds such as the Blue-rumped manakin (isidorei Pipra), Black Tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi), Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea), and hummingbird species like the Villavicencios Sabre-Wing Hermit (Campylopterus Villavicencio), and Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Schistes geoffroyi). This region is particularly endowed with a vibrant population of butterfly species; the diversity of species in this region indicates influence of the Amazon on the ecosystem. Callicore ines and Prepona Praeneste are two of the highly endangered butterfly species.
Selva de Florencia National Park
Selva de Florencia National Park has amazing diversity in its flora and fauna. The park has recorded a total of 43 mammal species, of which 14 are on the verge of extinction. Some of these mammals are howler monkey, white-footed tamarin, puma, collared peccary and anteater.
The park is also inhabited by several amphibians and reptiles. There are around 85 species recorded in the park, which accounts to almost 7.8 percent of the herpetofauna found in the park. The park has the largest concentration of frogs in the country and about 71% of the frogs found here are endemic, including the endangered dart -poison frog and ‘camouflaged rain frog’. The birdlife in the park is vibrant and there are more than 231 species of birds including the fiery cacique and gurria.